In order to function properly, the eyes must be able to focus, coordinate, move and assess their surroundings. These are basic visual skills. However, some people have difficulty with one or more, leading to visual complications. Some signs you or your loved ones have a basic visual dysfunction may include difficulty reading or with reading comprehension, headaches, eye pain and/or fatigue, double vision, poor performance of tasks, difficulty with rhythm, challenges with learning left and right, and reversing numbers or letters when copying or writing.  The following articles go into more details on the attributes and impact of each basic visual skill. 

  • Eye Movement

    Eye movement refers to the voluntary and involuntary movements of the eyes that assist with obtaining, fixating and following visual stimuli. The eyes are each connected to a system of six muscles. Light is sensed by the retina, which is a type of tissue that contains cells known as photoreceptors. These

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  • Eye Focusing

    The eyes have a focusing system called accommodation; it allows for visual clarity. The system is rested when you look at an object that is far away and is not forced to strain like it would if the target were close. In normal circumstances, the eyes are able to effortlessly transition between objects

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  • Eye Coordination

    Each eye picks up a slightly different image, but through a process called fusion, the brain blends the images together to make one three-dimensional picture. Good eye coordination is needed, however, and allows the eyes to sustain proper alignment so that they can focus on practically the same image,

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  • Eye Perception

    Visual perception refers to a set of skills used to collect and interpret visual information taken in from our environment. The visual information gathered is combined with our other senses, allowing us to derive meaning from what we see. Through the process of merging visual data with our other senses,

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  • Wandering Eye

    A wandering eye is a type of eye condition known as strabismus or tropia, and it may be caused by damage to the retina or muscles that control the eye, stroke or brain injury, or an uncorrected refractive error like farsightedness. With a wandering eye, one eye deviates or wanders in a different direction ...

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  • Reading and Writing

    For many adults, reading and writing come so naturally that they seem almost effortless. However, reading and writing are actually complicated skills that take significant effort to learn. For example, reading involves recognizing letters, associating letter combinations with their corresponding sounds, ...

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  • Lazy Eye

    Lazy eye, also referred to as amblyopia, is a condition that develops in infancy or early childhood, and it typically starts when the focus in one eye is more enhanced than the other. The eye with less focus might be impaired due to a significant amount of farsightedness or astigmatism, or something ...

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  • Dyslexia

    Dyslexia When a child has difficulty reading due to problems recognizing speech sounds and learning how they connect to words and letters, the condition is known as dyslexia, a learning disorder caused by genetic traits that disturb how the brain works. It affects areas of the brain dealing with language ...

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  • Crossed Eyes

    Crossed eyes, also known as strabismus, refer to a condition in which both eyes do not look at the same place at the same time. Often times they both turn in, but may also turn out. What Causes Crossed Eyes? The six muscles attached to each eye, which control how it moves, receive signals from the brain. ...

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  • Autism

    Symptoms and Problems Caused By Autism Autism is a neurological disorder in which the person has difficulty processing and reacting to information received from their senses. The individual also has trouble communicating and interacting socially. Signs of autism include: Lack of shared social interaction Postponement ...

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  • ADD/ADHD

    Approximately 11% of school-aged children have been diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to recent studies. The central symptoms of ADHD -- difficulty sustaining attention, poor control of behavior, hyperactivity -- make it difficult for children to succeed in school. ...

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  • Ocular Motor Dysfunction

    Parents are often aware of the need to screen children for nearsightedness or farsightedness, but fewer know about other pediatric vision problems. Ocular motor dysfunction is a condition that often manifests in childhood, although adults may also have this disorder. Because ocular motor dysfunction ...

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